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Equidistant, Standard and Secant Parallels

Miljenko Lapaine, Paulo Márcio Leal de Menezes


The paper describes a study of equidistant, standard and secant parallels in normal aspect cylindrical and conical projections. First, the explanation of cylindrical and conical projections as projections on cylindrical or conical surfaces is not recommended because it leads to misunderstanding projection properties. Furthermore, equidistant, standard and secant parallels are often assumed to be identical in references. After defining these three types of parallels, it is proved that it is necessary to differentiate them in the theory of map projections and teaching it.


map projection, equidistant parallel, standard parallel, secant parallel, cylindrical projection, conical projection

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Copyright (c) 2021 Miljenko Lapaine, Paulo Márcio Leal de Menezes

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