Cover Image

Standard Parallel and Secant Parallel in Azimuthal Projections

Miljenko Lapaine


It is commonly assumed that standard parallels and parallels that appear as the intersections of a developable surface and a sphere or ellipsoid coincide. This paper shows that this is not true of azimuthal projections which are equidistant along meridians, equidistant along parallels (orthographic), and equal-area, because there is no standard parallel at all in such projections. Only some azimuthal conformal (stereographic) projections have standard parallel, in which case it coincides with secant parallel.


map projection, azimuthal projection, standard parallel, secant parallel

Full Text:

PDF PDF (Hrvatski)

Copyright (c) 2018 Miljneko Lapaine

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

The Kartografija i Geoinformacije (Cartography and Geoinformation) journal publishes scientific and professional papers from cartography and other fields (geography, geodesy, geology, forestry, agronomy, history, architecture, pedagogy ...) if they are related to cartography and geoinformation.
We invite authors of papers or contributions to submit text in English (and Croatian if possible) using this site.

The Croatian Cartographic Society (CCS) does not necessarily endorse any opinions or recommendations made in article, review or extract contained in this journal nor do they necessarily represent CCS policy.
© CCS, Journal content is published under CC BY-SA licence.